Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as " the scientific study of control communication in the animal the machine. " In the 21st century, the term is often used in a rather loose way to imply " control of any system using technology. Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems— their structures constraints possibilities.
Practice of thinking that takes a holistic view of complex events or phenomenon, seemingly caused by myriad of isolated, independent, and usually unpredictable factors or forces. ST views all events and phenomenon as ' wholes' interacting according to systems principles in a few basic patterns called systems archetypes. These patterns underlie vastly different events and phenomenon such as.